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H T T P : / / W W W. I G I - G L O B A L . C O M / C H A P T E R / E N T E R P R I S E
- A RC H I T E C T U R E S - G O V E R N M E N T- D E V E L O P M E N T / 7 7 0 9
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H T T P : / / W W W. I G I - G L O B A L . C O M / C H A P T E R / E N T E R P R I S E
- A RC H I T E C T U R E S - G O V E R N M E N T- D E V E L O P M E N T / 7 7 0 9
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2

ABSTRACT
Two common Strategies for e-Government Development
•

Demand based

•

Architecture based

A National Enterprise Architectural (NEA) approach provides guidelines
form project planning to technical development and operations. It aligns
all the e-government projects with some standard principles.
In this Chapter following architectures and frameworks have discussed
Zachman Framework
RM-ODP (Reference Model- Open Distributed Processing)
ARCON (A Reference Model for Collaboration Network)
TOGAF (The Open Group Architectural Framework)
FEAF (Federal Enterprise Architecture Framework )

H T T P : / / W W W. I G I - G L O B A L . C O M / C H A P T E R / E N T E R P R I S E
- A RC H I T E C T U R E S - G O V E R N M E N T- D E V E L O P M E N T / 7 7 0 9
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3

Similarity Between Town Planning & Enterprise
Architecture

Long-term plans such as
roads, transportation and
communication networks,
provision of utilities, health
and housing facilities, etc

Long-term plans such as
integrated databases,
enterprise applications,
e-services at mass level, legal
frameworks etc

H T T P : / / W W W. I G I - G L O B A L . C O M / C H A P T E R / E N T E R P R I S E
- A RC H I T E C T U R E S - G O V E R N M E N T- D E V E L O P M E N T / 7 7 0 9
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4

EAI O N
N
N

A

A

L

E

N

T

E

R

P

R

IS

E

A

R

C

H

IT

E

C

T

U

R

E

provides guidelines at
• the strategic level to design &
implement ICT infrastructure

T

• starting from the top-level applications to
lowest level of physical IT facilities
• while keeping manpower,
security and governance in view.
Similar to a town planner

H T T P : / / W W W. I G I - G L O B A L . C O M / C H A P T E R / E N T E R P R I S E
- A RC H I T E C T U R E S - G O V E R N M E N T- D E V E L O P M E N T / 7 7 0 9
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L
A
UR
CT

TE
I
H H
RC AC
A O
AN PPR
A

•

Institutionalization

•

Standardized Development

•

Sustainability

•

Cost Reduction Through
Shared Resources

•

Return On Investment
(ROI)

H T T P : / / W W W. I G I - G L O B A L . C O M / C H A P T E R / E N T E R P R I S E
- A RC H I T E C T U R E S - G O V E R N M E N T- D E V E L O P M E N T / 7 7 0 9
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ED
IT
Nr
U n te

S
TE
TAence
S eri

p
Ex
l
na
o
ti
na

I

Pioneer in EA
development & implementation
Government Open Systems
Interconnection Profile (GOSIP) in 1980
The law on public IT acquisitions
supported the EA

Federal Chief Information Officer Council (CIOC)
published the "Federal Enterprise
Architecture Framework (FEAF) in 1999 Based
on Zachman & TOGAF

H T T P : / / W W W. I G I - G L O B A L . C O M / C H A P T E R / E N T E R P R I S E
- A RC H I T E C T U R E S - G O V E R N M E N T- D E V E L O P M E N T / 7 7 0 9
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N xp
A lE

M ona
ERnati
r

G n te
I

e
nc
ie
er

Standards and Architectures for
e-Government Applications (SAGA)
initiated by Federal Administration
(KBSt) as a NEA
It is based on Reference Model-Open
Distributed Processing (RM-ODP)
It evolved and extended to
e-Government 2.0 &
H T T P : / / W W W. I G I - G L O B A L . C O M / C H A P T E R / E N T E R P R I S E
Deutschland-Online programs
- A RC H I T E C T U R E S - G O V E R N M E N T- D E V E L O P M E N T / 7 7 0 9
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e-Government
Interoperability
Framework (e-GIF)
in 2001

SH
TI
I

Rr
B te
In

e
xp
E
al
n
io
t
na

e
nc
e
ri

e-GIF is a popular
framework and has been
adopted by some Commonwealth
countries
Scotland is using the Open Scotland
Information Age Framework (OSIAF)which
is extension of e-GIF
New Zealand also owns e-GIF

UK Government has introduced a new
cross-Government Enterprise Architecture (xGEA). It
supports the better inter-working between agencies
through the agreement of shared standards
The Reference Model of xGEA is xGEARM having
repository of Architectures for administrative
branches Tand W W. I G I -agencies M / C H A P T E R / E N Tdepartmental
their G L O B A L . C O to develop E R P R I S E
HT P://W
- A RC H I T E C T U R E S - G O V E R N M E N T- D E V E L O P M E N T / 7 7 0 9
EAs
9
1

eGovCH was
initiated in 2006
as NEA based on
The Open Group
E
Architectural Framework
C
N
(TOGAF) also aims to promote
IE
R
open source, vendor-neutral
E
P
and freely available tools
X

D
AN
L E

ER N A L
TZA T I O
I N

SWT E R
N
I

The Swiss IT Council Approved
the Open Source Software (OSS)
and Open Standard Strategy In 2004

eGovCH is Service-oriented Paradigm.
It also takes care of Political and Legal
Constraints

H T T P : / / W W W. I G I - G L O B A L . C O M / C H A P T E R / E N T E R P R I S E
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R

IE

An EA tool kit
“ B u s i n e s s Tr a n s f o r m a t i o n
Enablement Program (BTEP)
E
C
was introduced for
N

E
1. T h e s t r a t e g i c r e f e r e n c e m o d e l s
X
of Canadian government:
E
L
it suggests a common modeling
A
N
language for federal, provincial
O
I
and municipal to map their processes
T
P

A
AD

N NA
CAT E R
N
I

2. T r a n s f o r m a t i o n m e t h o d o l o g y : i t
involves
step-by-step processes and
implementation plans

I n 2 0 0 4 , C h i e f I n f o r m a t i o n O ffi c e r b r a n c h
of the treasury board of Canada
secretariat developed Governments of
H T T P : / / W W W. I G I - G L O B A L . C O M / C H A P T E R / E N T E R P R I S E
C a n a d -a R C HtTrEa T Ue E Si- G O V E eNfM E N T - D Ec E L O M oN T /e 7 0 9 G S11M )
e r e n V e PME d 7 l (
R
A S I
C t Rg c R R
1
under the shadow of BTEP

DR I E N

NPE

AEX
L

I

C

E

RN A L
E

Netherlands
or Dutch Government
IO
T
Reference Architecture (NORA)
A
N
is not a mandatory model for adoption
R
E
T
across the government agencies.

TH
E

NN

S

Organizations work with NORA on a
voluntary basis. NORA enables better
cohesion and collaboration among
government bodies
H T T P : / / W W W. I G I - G L O B A L . C O M / C H A P T E R / E N T E R P R I S E
- A RC H I T E C T U R E S - G O V E R N M E N T- D E V E L O P M E N T / 7 7 0 9
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Click icon to add picture

Ne
IA ienc
L er
A
R l Exp
T na
S
U rnatio
A te
Australian
In

Government initiated
Government Architecture
Reference Models (AGA-RM) which
is based the FEAF

H T T P : / / W W W. I G I - G L O B A L . C O M / C H A P T E R / E N T E R P R I S E
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E
R ience

O er
P
A al Exp

Click icon to add picture
Government
started EA program
in 2002
In 2007, a set of reference
models were introduced
Singapore Government Enterprise
Architecture (SGEA) including
• Business Reference Model (SG-BRM);
• Data Reference Model (SG-DRM);
• Application Reference Model (SG-ARM);
• Technology Reference Model (SG-TRM)

G ion
IN rnat
S te
In

A methodology was developed named as
Methodology for AGency ENTerprise Architecture
(MAGENTA)
to enable agencies to align to and fully support the
government’s transformation objectives and outcomes.
The program is now called Whole-of-Government
Enterprise Architecture (WOG EA) and aims for end
to end service delivery with integration and shared
H T T P : / / W W W. I G I - G L O B A L . C O M / C H A P T E R / E N T E R P R I approach
SE
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Click icon to add picture
Denmark
is Europe’s leader
in the use of NEA.
NEA was initiated in a
white Paper in 2003
NEA implementation approach
is based on incentives and
ce
K rien
voluntarism, i.e. there are no rules,
R pe
regulations, governing standards and
A Ex
principles for NEA development in government.
M al

N tion
E na
D te r
In

This highly decentralized governance model
provides liberty to municipalities to adopt it
independently and get benefited from experience
of mature and large size municipalities.
NEA was initiated by the Ministry of Science,
Technology and Innovation (MVTU) and is based
on the Zachman framework.
H T T P : / / W W W. I G I - G L O B A L . C O M / C H A P T E R / E N T E R P R I S E
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Click icon to add picture
Norwegian
Government developed
a centralized architecture and
translated into domain and
organizational architectures at
the local level.

AYExpe
W nal
R tio

O na
N te r
In

nc
e
ri

e

It is mandatory for national agencies
There is a strong emphasis on open
standards and open software.
The Norwegian NEA comprises
technical, conceptual, organizational
and procedural standards.
It also includes a shared component
library

H T T P : / / W W W. I G I - G L O B A L . C O M / C H A P T E R / E N T E R P R I S E
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Ministry
of Finance
initiated NEA program
in 1990s.

X

INE R N
F
IN

T

R

N

E

E
DAMany countries learn from Finnish experiences.
L

NO N

LA T I
A

P

E

IE

C

Finnish Government has been
a leader in introducing ICT
based reforms in public
administration and services.

The framework consists of four common
viewpoints: business, information, application
and technology.
The framework is based on several famous
frameworks such as FEA and TOGAF

H T T P : / / W W W. I G I - G L O B A L . C O M / C H A P T E R / E N T E R P R I S E
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NEA IMPLEMENTATIONS
•

Strongly Federated: Countries having strong federated
structure have implemented this type of centralized NEA.
Usually, these are small countries needing no decentralization.

•

Weakly Federated: Countries who have decentralized their
structure at diferent sub-national levels implement a devolved
NEA structure. Usually these countries are big in size and have
large population. They may partially decentralize their NEA
using devolved models.

•

Independent: Countries having nearly independent
states/sub-nationals do not have a mandatory or controlled
NEA structure. They have very broad level guidelines and
leave the actual implementation of EA to the respective
states/sub-nationals.

H T T P : / / W W W. I G I - G L O B A L . C O M / C H A P T E R / E N T E R P R I S E
- A RC H I T E C T U R E S - G O V E R N M E N T- D E V E L O P M E N T / 7 7 0 9
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DEVOLUTION / DECENTRALIZATION
In the second half of the century, many countries embraced decentralization in
terms of
•

political,

•

fiscal and

•

administrative powers
“Devolution to lower levels has to involve a meaningful transfer of authority
to be acceptable and to work effectively. It also has to maintain horizontal
equity by ensuring a fair distribution of fiscal and other resources across the
units”

The “Soufflé” theory of decentralization described role of political, fiscal, and
administrative decentralization. It proposed that only appropriate mixture of these
types of decentralizations can produce results

H T T P : / / W W W. I G I - G L O B A L . C O M / C H A P T E R / E N T E R P R I S E
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DEVOLUTION IN E-GOVERNMENT
Heeks categorized eight main areas of decentralization i-e planning,
organizational structures and staffing, data management,
computing and data management architecture, information systems
development, information technology acquisition, training, and
technical support
A centralized approach requires very strong controls, whereas a partial
decentralized approach in which few modules are centralized while
few are decentralized can be cost efective and a better solution for
both mature and undeveloped organizations.
Richard Heeks recommended a ‘core-periphery approach to public
information, a system that combines both central and local action,
and is therefore most efective. In the Core-Periphery solution is
defined as:
 
“… core-periphery approach that attempts to reconcile the
push of the centralized approach with the pull of the
decentralized approach” (Heeks, 1999).
 
H T T P : / / W W W. I G I - G L O B A L . C O M / C H A P T E R / E N T E R P R I S E
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DEVOLUTION IN E-GOVERNMENT……
Federal level may devolve many powers and service delivery
operations to sub-nationals (local government and municipalities)
while policy, enterprise applications and related databases may be
kept centralized.
In this way, integration, standardization, security, technical experience
and investment can be utilized in optimum manner.
As a result, multiple levels of government need to rearrange their roles
and intergovernmental relationships. Devolution in e-governance
facilitates the transfer of few powers related to e-government
activity from central government to sub-national level with respect
to other devolutions such as political, fiscal and administrative
power.
e-Devolution highly depends on the devolution of political
representation, fiscal management and administrative control of the
e-government functions.

H T T P : / / W W W. I G I - G L O B A L . C O M / C H A P T E R / E N T E R P R I S E
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POLITICAL REPRESENTATION
•

In a democratic regime, public representation is essential at local level for
electronic service delivery to public and business sector.

•

Political ownership and “will” is also very important for the implementation set by
central government.

•

Federal and state/provincial governments may select technocrats and political
leaders for efective launching of e-services.

•

Local governments and municipalities may set targets for elected councilors for the
mobilization and education of the people for usage of online services.

•

Individual participation like polls for need of e-services, quality and reliability of
e-services, and Owning of ruling party, audit by opposition, and mobilization
through none governmental organizations (NGO) or civil society organizations
(CSO).

•

Trust in e-government services can be improved through these political
participations

•

Political value chain is as significant in e-government as value chain in industrial
business

H T T P : / / W W W. I G I - G L O B A L . C O M / C H A P T E R / E N T E R P R I S E
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FISCAL MANAGEMENT
Fiscal devolution supports the political as well as administrative
devolution and has major role in inter-governmental relations
horizontally as well as vertically.
Economists have believed that in fiscal autonomy can increase the
efficiency and responsibility of sub-national governments.
Many countries have granted greater fiscal autonomy to their
sub-nationals for better planning, budgeting and revenue collection
as per their socio-economic conditions.
Fiscal devolution can provide liberty for the development projects as
compared to the centralized fiscal regimes, however it poses
considerable challenges for macroeconomic management.

H T T P : / / W W W. I G I - G L O B A L . C O M / C H A P T E R / E N T E R P R I S E
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ADMINISTRATIVE CONTROL
Reference to the scale of country and traditional administrative
devolution, e-government devolution also needs a complete
administrative role in delivering public services.
Operations of e-services also need some degree of involvement of field
staf, kiosks and back-offices.
This requires administrative work-force at the local government level,
hence requiring devolution in the administrative access of
e-government portals or applications.
High degree of collaboration is required between agencies at diferent
levels, both horizontal as well as vertical to deliver e-services by
using integrated information

H T T P : / / W W W. I G I - G L O B A L . C O M / C H A P T E R / E N T E R P R I S E
- A RC H I T E C T U R E S - G O V E R N M E N T- D E V E L O P M E N T / 7 7 0 9
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ADOPTION OF DEVOLUTION
APPROACH
International experience may be summarized into three
categories:
• Decentralized such as Taiwan
• devolved
• centralized
Singapore, the Netherlands,
Korea, Switzerland and Japan
have all both centralized and
decentralized or devolved
governance.

H T T P : / / W W W. I G I - G L O B A L . C O M / C H A P T E R / E N T E R P R I S E
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Decentralized Approach

Devolved Approach

Centralized Approach

Sub-nationals or local
governments may develop
their own software
applications, databases,
security models by using
shared resources and
provide online services to
their respective
stakeholders.

One stop e-government
having all centralized G2C,
G2B, G2G and G2E services

Implementation of few vital
shared resources such as
databases and applications

Shared applications,
databases and services

Instructions for
interoperability and
integration of diferent
independent software
applications and databases
of local governments

Instructions for
interoperability and
integration of diferent
independent software
applications and databases
of local governments

Instructions for the usage of
centralized services
SOPs for operations

Legislation related to
complete decentralization
Local government may
establish e-governments of
their own choice

Legislation related to partial
decentralization
Local government may
establish e-governments by
adopting mandatory
conditions

Legislation related to partial
decentralization
Local government may
establish e-governments by
adopting mandatory
conditions

Legislation related to
centralized e-government
Local governments bound to
follow the SOPs defined by
Federal government

Local governments may
design and develop their
own EAs

Local governments may
Local governments may
design and develop their
design and develop shadow Strong and comprehensive
own EAs under the Federal W W. I G I - G L O B A L . C O M / C H A P T E R / E N T E R P R I S E
HTTP://W
EAs under a comprehensive NEA
government instructions T E C T U R E S - G O V E R N M E N T - D E V E L O P M E N T / 7 7 0 9
- A R C H I or
26
NEA
broader NEA
1

Sub-nationals or local
governments may develop
their own software
applications, databases,
security models and provide
online services to their
respective stakeholders.

Sub-nationals or local
governments may develop
their own software
applications, databases,
security models by
considering the Federal
Instructions and provide
online services to their
respective stakeholders.

E-GOVERNMENT ARCHITECTURAL
FRAMEWORK
•

e-Government is a complex and multidimensional enterprise system, and needs
comprehensive plan for development, implementation and operations.

•

A National Enterprise Architecture integrates all the related initiatives.

•

NEA can connect horizontal as well as vertical relationship among national and
sub-national levels.

•

Enterprise Architecture is the basic instrument for transformation and
reconstruction of government

•

There are many generic EAs available. Five diferent Enterprise Architectures
are selected for discussion in the light of devolution in e-government

Zachman Framework
RM-ODP (Reference Model- Open Distributed Processing)
ARCON (A Reference Model for Collaboration Network)
TOGAF (The Open Group Architectural Framework)
FEAF (Federal Enterprise Architecture Framework )

H T T P : / / W W W. I G I - G L O B A L . C O M / C H A P T E R / E N T E R P R I S E
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ZACHMAN FRAMEWORK
• John Zachman introduced Zachman Enterprise Architecture
Framework (ZF) in 1987
• It is the most famous framework among public and
private sectors.
• Majority of the enterprise architectures have been derived from
John Zachman’s original framework
• Zachman organized diferent information in an enterprise matrix.
• Each cell of this matrix represents the relation to certain viewpoint
(data, function, network, people, time, and motivation) and of the perception
(contextual, conceptual, logical, physical, and out of context).
• Each column estimates one of the Aristotelian questions: what, how, where, who,
when and why. Each row corresponds to one of the roles: the planner, the owner,
the designer, the builder, and the subcontractor
• This framework is initiated at the planning level and then it bridges with lower
sections containing the technical architecture.
• Overall this framework delivers comprehensive knowledge about the business
process and its technical development.

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H T T P : / / W W W. I G I - G L O B A L . C O M / C H A P T E R / E N T E R P R I S E
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E-Devolution and Zachman
Framework
•

Zachman Framework (ZF)
has capability to facilitate the
devolution approach for a
centralized e-government.

•

Devolution in e-governance
may be accommodated at
fourth column “who” which
can address organization,
people and stakeholders.

H T T P : / / W W W. I G I - G L O B A L . C O M / C H A P T E R / E N T E R P R I S E
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REFERENCE MODEL OF
OPEN DISTRIBUTED PROCESSING
(RM-ODP)
• RM-ODP was introduced by International Organization for
Standardization (ISO) and International Telecommunication Union
(ITU)
•

German government implemented it as NEA with name known as
SAGA (Standards and Architectures for e-Government Applications)

•

This EA has five viewpoints to explain a complex enterprise system.
•
•
•
•
•

Enterprise Viewpoint
Information Viewpoint
Computational Viewpoint
Engineering Viewpoint
Technology Viewpoint

H T T P : / / W W W. I G I - G L O B A L . C O M / C H A P T E R / E N T E R P R I S E
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REFERENCE MODEL OF
OPEN DISTRIBUTED PROCESSING
(RM-ODP)

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A REFERENCE MODEL FOR
COLLABORATION NETWORKS (ARCON)
This consists of three perspectives
(1) Life cycle perspective
(2) Environment characteristics perspective
(3) Model intents perspective
These dimensions may be incorporated to establish a virtual
government by collaborative prospective:
 
“Virtual government – an alliance of governmental organizations (e.g.
city hall, tax office, cadaster office, and civil infrastructures office)
that combine their services through the use of computer networks
to provide integrated services to the citizen through a common
front-end”

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ARCON

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DEVOLUTION ASPECT IN ARCON

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THE OPEN GROUP ARCHITECTURE
FRAMEWORK (TOGAF)
•

TOGAF initiated by the Architecture Forum of The Open Group and
progressing since the mid-1990s. TOGAF’s objective is to facilitate a broad
range framework to develop architectures for enterprises and specifically for
e-governments

•

A main area of TOGAF is Architecture Development Method (ADM) that
describes the comprehensive processes from scratch to certain mature level.

•

Enterprise Continuum (EC) is very useful feature of TOGAF. ADM and EC
facilitate the requirements of a large organization such as e-government
where number of agencies and sub-national organizations are engaged.

•

ADM is based on feedback of experienced architectural practitioners. It
suggests an approach for developing the enterprise architecture, and
integrates the components of TOGAF.

•

The Enterprise Continuum is an important component for the communication
and understanding. This is a "framework-within-a-framework".

•

e-Government requires enterprise continuum for its NEA implementation and
also needs to develop common understanding among all the stakeholders.

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TOGAF
TOGAF is based on the following four architecture domains with respect to
e-devolution.
•

Business Architecture aims to address the strategy, policy, governance,
organization, and business processes of the diferent government services.
Reference to TOGAF as NEA, devolution architecture can also be easily explained
here

•

Applications Architecture is the showcase for the technical specifications of
application systems to be deployed. Most important sub domain of this
architecture is the integration specifications.

•

Data Architecture includes the data sources of organization. In case of NEA,
centralized and local databases should be documented with the comprehensive
policies regarding data usage, ownership, updating and integration.

•

Technical Architecture focuses the ICT infrastructure including hardware,
software and bandwidth necessary for electronic services to all stakeholders of
e-government.

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TOGAF: DEVOLUTION

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FEDERAL ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE
FRAMEWORK (FEAF)
•

United States is the pioneer in EA technologies that was triggered
by the Clinger-Cohen Act.

•

Federal CIO (Chief Information Officers) Council of USA introduced
"Federal Enterprise Architecture Framework" (FEAF) Version 1.1 for
developing EA for federal agencies.

•

The FEAF aims to provide a standard for developing and
documenting architecture explanations.

•

A few countries are in the process to following this framework as
NEA such as Australia.

•

It evolved from Zachman framework

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Common between Zachman & FEAF
Zachman
Columns

What

How

Where

FEAF Columns

Data Architecture

Application
Architecture

Technology
Architecture

Planner
Perspective

List of Business
Objects

List of Business
Processes

List of Business
Locations

Owner
Perspective

Semantic Model

Business Process
Model

Business Logistics
System

Designer
Perspective

Logical Data Model

Application
Architecture

System Geographic
Deployment
Architecture

Builder
Perspective

Physical Data Model

Systems Design

Technology
Architecture

Subcontractor
Perspective

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TURES-GOV
Architecture
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REFERENCE MODELS OF FEAF
FEAF architecture domains are business, data, applications,
and technology. The Federal Enterprise Architecture Framework
is built using following reference models
•

 Performance Reference Model (PRM)

•

Business Reference Model (BRM)

•

Service Component Reference Model (SCRM)

•

Data Reference Model (DRM)

•

Technical Reference Model (TRM)

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DEVOLUTION ASPECT IN FEAF

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EVALUATION OF NEA
Governments have to evaluate their investment and efforts spent for the
implementation of NEA . Evaluation model may aim to assess the following
objectives
1. reduced costs (no duplication of eforts, sharing of common resources)
2. providing a complete status of the enterprise,
3. assessment of business-IT alignment,
4. improved change management,
5. improved risk management,
6. improved interoperability and integration, and
7. shortened cycle times
Above mentioned evaluation objectives are not limited. Reference to the
“International Enterprise Architecture survey, 2006”, approximately 45% of the
countries are measuring EA performance including USA, Switzerland, Japan,
Taiwan and Denmark.

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SUMMARY
• This chapter introduces the concept of National Enterprise Architecture (NEA) and
emphasizes its importance. Adoption of NEA by diferent countries is also briefly
discussed.
• A review of e-government implementations of diferent countries indicates that
governments adopt either a centralized, decentralized or a devolved governing structure
based on their strongly federated, weakly federated or independent governance models
• This chapter also discusses five diferent enterprise architecture frameworks in light of
devolved e-government.
• Zachman architecture is the pioneer and is reflected in the implementation of majority
of the NEAs.
• All of these frameworks can be implemented for three diferent governance structures.
• RM-ODP and TOGAF are also generic architectures and frameworks that may be
implemented on any governing structure.
• However the Collaborative Network approach is more appropriate for countries having
decentralized or independent governing model.
• The NEAs are approaching a maturity stage. It is now needed to evaluate these NEA
investments and eforts and assess their maturity level.

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