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(Un)ethical Use of
Photoshop in Media
Group 6
Claudia Ciuffo
Jennifer Quan
Lisandra Maioli
Marina Kuzina
FNU Sudha Priyadarshini

UCLA Extension - June 19, 2014

Standard Of Beauty & Photoshop |
Model Before and After

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lUF2zbgBXwE

Body Image & The Media - Stop
Photoshop

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JR7ruMLe-ZU

Photoshop
Launched in 1990 by Adobe
 500,000 Photoshop CS6 beta (launched in 2012) had
downloads in the first week
Google search
 “photoshop” - About 156,000,000 results
 “photoshop used by media” - About 88,900,000 results
Linkedin search
 “photosho” - 7,955 results
Social Media Channels
 YouTube: +217K subscribers
 Twitter: +687K followers

Megan Orsi, Sr. Lead Web Designer from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

Photoshop and Media
“The average woman sees 400 to 600 [of
these Photoshopped] advertisements per
day, and by the time she is 17 years old, she
has received over 250,000 commercial
messages through the media.”
'America's Mental Channel
http://www.examiner.com/article/bent-on-body-image-the-media-mirrors-and-photos-versus-photoshop

Basic Perspectives for Evaluating and
Improving Marketing Ethics
BP3: Marketers are responsible for
whatever they intend as a means or
end with a marketing action
BP5: Marketers should articulate
and embrace a core set of ethical
principles

BP6: Adoption of a stakeholder
orientation is essential to ethical
marketing decisions.

BP1: Ethical Marketing puts people
first
BP4: Organizations should cultivate
better and higher moral imagination
in their managers and employees

BP7: Organizations should delineate
an ethical decision making protocol

BP2: Ethical Marketers must achieve
a behavioral standard above the law

BP1: Ethical Marketing
puts people first

Basic Perspectives for Evaluating and
Improving Marketing Ethics
BP3: Marketers are responsible for
whatever they intend as a means or
end with a marketing action
BP5: Marketers should articulate
and embrace a core set of ethical
principles

BP6: Adoption of a stakeholder
orientation is essential to ethical
marketing decisions.

BP1: Ethical Marketing puts people
first
BP4: Organizations should cultivate
better and higher moral imagination
in their managers and employees

BP7: Organizations should delineate
an ethical decision making protocol

BP2: Ethical Marketers must achieve
a behavioral standard above the law

The movie King Arthur
promotional poster

Target’s Swimsuit

BP2: Ethical Marketers
must achieve a behavioral
standard above the law

Basic Perspectives for Evaluating and
Improving Marketing Ethics
BP3: Marketers are responsible for
whatever they intend as a means or
end with a marketing action
BP5: Marketers should articulate
and embrace a core set of ethical
principles

BP6: Adoption of a stakeholder
orientation is essential to ethical
marketing decisions.

BP1: Ethical Marketing puts people
first
BP4: Organizations should cultivate
better and higher moral imagination
in their managers and employees

BP7: Organizations should delineate
an ethical decision making protocol

BP2: Ethical Marketers must achieve
a behavioral standard above the law

Governmental and Legal
InterventionsThe Self-Esteem Act
Media and Public Health Act (MPHA) co-sponsored by NEDA
Truth in Advertising Act of 2014 (Anti-Photoshop Act)
Self regulation from National Advertising Division (a part of the
Better Business Bureau)

BP3: Marketers are
responsible for
whatever they intend as
a means or end with a
marketing action

Basic Perspectives for Evaluating and
Improving Marketing Ethics
BP3: Marketers are responsible for
whatever they intend as a means or
end with a marketing action
BP5: Marketers should articulate
and embrace a core set of ethical
principles

BP6: Adoption of a stakeholder
orientation is essential to ethical
marketing decisions.

BP1: Ethical Marketing puts people
first
BP4: Organizations should cultivate
better and higher moral imagination
in their managers and employees

BP7: Organizations should delineate
an ethical decision making protocol

BP2: Ethical Marketers must achieve
a behavioral standard above the law

Why are we so Obsessed
 Social Pressure
 Idolizing Stars
 Barbie Dolls inculcate this
idea of beauty right from
childhood
 Golden standards of
beauty are set by runway
models in Paris, New York
and Milan

Good looks lead to
higher paychecks

Some Examples

News Anchor
airbrushed, Looked
nothing like herself

Ann Taylor recent Ad

Some Examples

BP4: Organizations
should cultivate better
and higher moral
imagination in their
managers and employees

Basic Perspectives for Evaluating and
Improving Marketing Ethics
BP3: Marketers are responsible for
whatever they intend as a means or
end with a marketing action
BP5: Marketers should articulate
and embrace a core set of ethical
principles

BP6: Adoption of a stakeholder
orientation is essential to ethical
marketing decisions.

BP1: Ethical Marketing puts people
first
BP4: Organizations should cultivate
better and higher moral imagination
in their managers and employees

BP7: Organizations should delineate
an ethical decision making protocol

BP2: Ethical Marketers must achieve
a behavioral standard above the law

Legalist?
 Lack of adequate laws does not put any legal
liabilities on marketers
Moral Strivers?
 Direct impact on viewers but they prefer to
laugh all the way to their banks
Relativistic Marketers?
 Everyone is definitely doing it

BP5: Marketers should
articulate and embrace a
core set of ethical
principles

Basic Perspectives for Evaluating and
Improving Marketing Ethics
BP3: Marketers are responsible for
whatever they intend as a means or
end with a marketing action
BP5: Marketers should articulate
and embrace a core set of ethical
principles

BP6: Adoption of a stakeholder
orientation is essential to ethical
marketing decisions.

BP1: Ethical Marketing puts people
first
BP4: Organizations should cultivate
better and higher moral imagination
in their managers and employees

BP7: Organizations should delineate
an ethical decision making protocol

BP2: Ethical Marketers must achieve
a behavioral standard above the law

Dove Mission Statement
“In a world in which girls are too often held back by
low self-esteem and anxiety about their looks,
Dove’s Social Mission is to help encourage girls to
develop a positive relationship with beauty,
helping to raise their self-esteem and thereby
enabling them to realize their full potential.”

http://www.unilever.com/brands-in-action/detail/Dove/292077/

“Real Beauty” (2004)

“Evolution”, by Ogilvy &
Mather (Toronto) 2005

“Evolution”, by Ogilvy &
Mather (Toronto) 2006

“Thought Before Action”,
by Ogilvy Toronto 2013

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=m0JF4QxPpvM

BP6: Adoption of a
stakeholder orientation is
essential to ethical
marketing decisions

Basic Perspectives for Evaluating and
Improving Marketing Ethics
BP3: Marketers are responsible for
whatever they intend as a means or
end with a marketing action
BP5: Marketers should articulate
and embrace a core set of ethical
principles

BP6: Adoption of a stakeholder
orientation is essential to ethical
marketing decisions.

BP1: Ethical Marketing puts people
first
BP4: Organizations should cultivate
better and higher moral imagination
in their managers and employees

BP7: Organizations should delineate
an ethical decision making protocol

BP2: Ethical Marketers must achieve
a behavioral standard above the law

Embrace the Stakeholder
Concept
130,502 plastic surgery procedures done for teenagers
under the age of 18 in the USA (ASAPS)

Celebrities

Partners
“I’m not blaming anybody, or criticizing art directors. … It’s an
entire culture, the entire industry. If I could find some clever
way of getting [marketers] to think differently, I would do that
too. … Hopefully, all that Dove has done for years is sparked
debate for clients and advertising agencies.” – Linda Carte, vice
president and associate creative director at BBDO Toronto

Media
Facebook campaign called “ad makeover” is
criticizing the weight-loss ads that are prevalent on
the social network

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=818if1bkCdo

BP7: Organizations
should delineate an
ethical decision making
protocol

Basic Perspectives for Evaluating and
Improving Marketing Ethics
BP3: Marketers are responsible for
whatever they intend as a means or
end with a marketing action
BP5: Marketers should articulate
and embrace a core set of ethical
principles

BP6: Adoption of a stakeholder
orientation is essential to ethical
marketing decisions.

BP1: Ethical Marketing puts people
first
BP4: Organizations should cultivate
better and higher moral imagination
in their managers and employees

BP7: Organizations should delineate
an ethical decision making protocol

BP2: Ethical Marketers must achieve
a behavioral standard above the law

In 2012, Julia Bluhm, 14 years
old, organized a Petition asking
Seventeen Magazine to print
one unaltered photo in
its magazine each month.

Over 84,000 Teenagers signed the petition:
“Keep girls’ body sizes or face shapes unaltered and
celebrate every kind of beauty.”

Seventeen Magazine’s
Protocol

The letter by Ann Shoket, Seventeen’s editor in chief,
about the magazine’s Body Peace Treaty, signed by all the
reporters of Seventeen, which says it won’t “change girls’
body or face shapes” and also promises more
transparency.

Next steps

References

References
•

No Author. “Eat Disorder Statistics.” National Association of Anorexia Nervosa and Associated
Disorders, June 16, 2014.

•

Matlins, Seth. “Why Beauty Ads Should Be Legislated.” Huffington Post, June 16, 2014. http
://www.huffingtonpost.com/seth-matlins/post_2329_b_932086.html

•

No Author. “National Eating Disorders Association Joins Off Our Chests In Battle to Launch
Media Public Health Act.” National Eating Disorders Association, June 16, 2014. http
://www.nationaleatingdisorders.org/press-room/press-releases/2012-press-releases/national-ea
ting-disorders-association-joins-our-chests-battle-launch-media-and-public-healthact

•

Bahadur, Nina. “Dove ‘Real Beauty’ Campaign Turns 10: How A Brand Tried to Change The
Conversation About Real Beauty.” Huffington Post, June 16, 2014.
http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2014/01/21/dove-real-beauty-campaign-turns-10_n_4575940
.html

References
•

Zara, Christopher. “Truth In Advertising Gains Support, But Photoshop Regulation Is A Tall
Order. International Business Times, June 16, 2014. 

•

NDFmedia. "celebrities Before and After Photoshop". YouTube. June 16, 2014. 

•

Herzing, Sam. "Legislating Beauty: Comparative Regulations of Photoshop Use". PDF
Presentation. May 1, 2013.

•

Zapata, Kimberly. "Bent on body image: The media, mirrors, and photos versus Photoshop".
Examiner. June 16, 2014. 

Referencies
•

Botelho, Greg. "Seventeen magazine vows not to alter images, to 'celebrate every kind of
beauty'". CNN US. June 16, 2014. 

•

Cowles, Charlote. "Seventeen Magazine Makes ‘Body Peace Treaty’". The Cut. NY Mag. June
16, 2014. 

•

No author. "Adobe Photoshop CS6 Statistics | Video". Zinx. June 16, 2014. 

•

No author. "Adobe Photoshop". Wikipedia. June 16, 2014. 

•

Born Squishy. “Dove: Onslaught.” YouTube, June 16, 2014.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9zKfF40jeCA

More Referencies
•

President of the World. “Body Evolution.” YouTube, June 16, 2014. < https
://www.youtube.com/watch?v=17j5QzF3kqE#t=47 >

•

Bre. “Dove’s New Ad Campaign: Photoshop Trick or Reality Treat.” Birchbox on Tumblr, June
16, 2014.


•

Souppouris, Aaron. “Dove releases rogue Photoshop action that undoes 'real beauty'
manipulations.> The Verge, June 16, 2014. < http
://www.theverge.com/2013/3/6/4070254/dove-real-beauty-campaign-photoshop-beautify-ac
tionscam

More Referencies
•

Luong, Cindy. “Dove Campaign for Real Beaty.” Slideshare, June 16, 2014. 

•

Nudd, Tim. “Ogilvy's Photoshop hacktivism is clever but questionable for a brand built on honesty”
Adweek, June 16, 2014.< http://www.adweek.com/news/advertising-branding/ad-day-dove-147846
>

•

Wasserman, Todd. “Dove’s ‘Beautify’ Photoshop Action Unairbrushes Images of Models.” Mashable,
June 16, 2014. http://mashable.com/2013/03/06/dove-photoshop-action/

•

Forster, Stefani. “Dove Canada’s Photoshop ‘Action’ Reverts Airbrushed, Edited Photos.” Huffington
Post Canada, June 16, 2014. http
://www.huffingtonpost.ca/2013/03/07/dove-canada-photoshop-hack_n_2828962.html

Some Interesting Links
•

Croffors, Andy. "The Darwinian Evolution of Photoshop ". Techking. June 16, 2014. 

•

Anderson, Susan. "Ideal Body Measurements: Perfect Proportions". ienhance. June 16, 2014.


•

No author. "These Infographics Of What Men And Women Think The Perfect Body Looks Like
Are Vastly Different". Her.ie. June 16, 2014. 

•

Born Squishy. “Dove: Onslaught.” YouTube, June 16, 2014. 

Unethical Use of
Photoshop in Media
Project for UCLA Extension
Ethics in Marketing & Advertising
Spring 2014
Instructor: Jennifer Beever

- June 19, 2014

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